Two years ago, I set up this blog to report on our efforts to gather reliable and timely data on citizens’ lives in Dar es Salaam through mobile phones. By now, our project (now called Listening to Dar) has developed into something much more than what we could have imaged when we started this process. Since the World Bank started funding the data gathering, we published 16 data reports on Public Services in Dar es Salaam and our findings generate considerable media interest in Tanzania. Our data have also been used in this year’s World Bank Global Montoring Report (see www.listeningtodar.org).
At the same time, very little has happened on this blog during the previous months. Not because we have not been doing exciting things (we have), but because by now, we reached a certain level of routine and moved beyond the phase of experimentation, of trial-and-error. At this point, we invest most of our efforts in gathering relevant data on different aspects of people’s living conditions, publishing thought-provoking and accessible reports, and making sure they enter and inform public discourse. Much of this we achieve through the official project’s website, our twitter account, and our bi-weekly press conferences held in Dar es Salaam.
For these reasons, I will stop posting here for now. However, I will keep this blog online as an archive of our mistakes and experiences, and most of all as a potential learning resource for those who plan to set up a similar infrastructure elsewhere.
To celebrate the fact that our project is about to move into its next phase, with biweekly panel interviews to be conducted until June, we gave our website a new face, a new feeling and a brand new URL: www.listeningtodar.org.
On our new site, you will find previous reports on Public Services in Dar es Salaam, access all of our data and see how our findings have been used in the media and in other reports (e.g. in the recent World Bank Global Monitoring Report, p. 33). Also, you can tell us what you think we should focus on in future survey rounds. So have a look, browse around, and do let us know what you think!
Since the World Bank started funding this project some five months ago, and we began using it to monitor the quality of public service provision in Dar es Salaam, we have successfully ran ten survey rounds, distributed our data reports to various stakeholders, and saw the mass media picking up our findings.
We covered a wide array of topics, including citizens’ food consumption habits, their experiences with the health care system in Dar es Salaam, their satisfaction with the city’s water and electricity infrastructures and the hardship caused by the devastating 2011 December flood. We are currently finalizing our newest report on the widespread problem of teacher absenteeism in both primary and secondary schools, for which we drew from our 550 panel households to interview more than 300 school children from all three districts of the city. That report will soon be available on the project’s website – where we not only publish all of our reports, but also the full data sets to encourage the statistically inclined to run their own analyses. To whet your appetite, see below for some visualizations of the type of findings we are getting from all of this.
After the Citizen and the Sunday Citizen have started using our findings during the last couple of weeks (see previous post), The Guardian now also has published an article on the poor state of Dar es Salaam’s power infrastructure that draws on our recent report on electricity in the city (both the English and Swahili report will be published soon on the project’s website).
At a time where the Tanzanian mainstream news media have started picking up our reports (see here and here), the blogging community has also started to pay attention to our data and the broader stories they tell.
In the meanwhile, in order to increase our reach and help our findings to travel back into the public sphere, we are also posting some of our most interesting bits of data on our twitter account @Darmobilesurvey
A lot has happened.
So it’s high time for a brief update.
As you will know if you have followed this blog, my colleagues at Twaweza and DataVision and me started off this projected in 2010 with an extensive face-to-face interviews of a stratified sample of 550 household in Dar es Salaam.
Those respondents who had access to a mobile phone (about 83%) were asked to participate in our mobile phone follow up survey. As an incentive to regularly answer questions through the phone, credit top-ups were offered as incentives to respond to the weekly set of questions.
To reduce selection bias in our mobile phone panel waves, much effort was invested in trying to get those people into the panel that originally did not own a phone. At this point, 20 phones have been handed out and a team of researchers is currently going to back to baseline respondents to distribute more phones.
By now, the mobile panel of around 350 active respondents is part of the World Bank-funded Urban Public Service Monitoring Project. Every two weeks, participants are approached with a short set of questions on their daily lives and their experiences with public services in the city.
For each survey round, I write up a report that is then translated into Swahili, published online and distributed to different stakeholders and journalists in the city. The first round focused on water infrastructure, followed by a survey on education, the health system, urban governance, electricity and consumption (see graphs for some ideas about the type of questions that are being addressed with this exciting new data gathering tool).
For the full reports and data files, visit the projects new website at http://monitor.public-transparency.org/
I ended my last post with the promise to share our experiences with the distribution of mobile phones and also to talk about the testing of new technologies for data gathering (particularly USSD). Unfortunately, as there have been some delays in setting a date for resuming the panel (which is currently not active), also the distribution of phones has been stalled. As things stand now, the 50 phones will most likely be distributed during the course of next week, which means that I will not be involved in the exercise personally as I will be leaving for Amsterdam in a couple of days.
When it comes to the testing of USSD, however, there is more to say. About three weeks ago, we conducted a pilot test of USSD for administering a two-question survey to 50 respondents selected from our panel. As these respondents had so far always been called for the interviews and never used any other channel for submitting their responses, we first sent a text message explaining the procedure and asking them to initiate the questionnaire by punching in a specific number code. However, it soon became clear that a simple text message is not sufficient to make respondents comfortable with switching technologies: quite a few respondents sent their responses as a text message and others called up the call centre number to ask what they were supposed to do. In the end, only one person answered both questions using USSD.
While this seems like a highly disappointing result at first, the main lesson that I would take away from this, is not that USSD cannot be used for conducting surveys. I still believe that the technology has great potential (see my earlier posts on this) for quickly gathering simple data from large samples. The main lesson, rather, seems to be that personal on-the-spot training of respondents is crucial when anything else than voice is being used. Even more so, as many respondents probably have used USSD for other purposes in the past (e.g. for transferring money). While this is admittedly not based on solid evidence, I believe that if respondents had been trained during the face-to-face to use USSD as a surveying tool, response rates would have been much larger. But this is something that remains to be seen, as Data Vision now has a automated system in place capable of further testing the technology for surveying purposes.
As I have mentioned above- and much to my frustration – I will not be present for the actual distribution of the mobile phones. As this is such an important step in not only increasing panel size (which is currently at about 310 active respondents) before the new round of surveying will start, but foremost of rendering the sample more representative, I will make sure to soon post some of the results and field experiences of my colleagues at Uwazi/Twaweza and Data Vision.